Navigation Links
Phenotype


The phenotype of an individual organism is either its total physical appearance and constitution, or a specific manifestation of a trait, such as size or eye color, that varies between individuals. Phenotype is determined to some extent by genotype, or by the identity of the alleles that an individual carries at one or more positions on the chromosomes. Many phenotypes are determined by multiple genes and influenced by environmental factors. Thus, the identity of one or a few known alleles does not always enable prediction of the phenotype.

Nevertheless, because phenotypes are much easier to observe than genotypes (it doesn't take chemistry or sequencing to determine a person's eye color), classical genetics uses phenotypes to deduce the functions of genes. Breeding experiments can then check these inferences. In this way, early geneticists were able to trace inheritance patterns without any knowledge whatsoever of molecular biology.

The interaction between genotype and phenotype has often been described using a simple equation:

Phenotype = Genotype + Environment

A phenotype is any detectable characteristic of an organism (i.e. structural, biochemical, physiological and behavioral) determined by an interaction between its genotype and environment (see genotype-phenotype distinction and phenotypic plasticity for a further elaboration of this distinction).

The idea of the phenotype has been generalized by Richard Dawkins to include effects on other organisms or the environment in The Extended Phenotype.

See also


'"/>


(Date:9/23/2014)... Rice University scientists who are fighting a cyberwar against ... clinician,s most powerful ally. , "Recent research has found ... the immune system, and we studied the interplay between ... might turn the tables on cancer," said Rice University,s ... in the Early Edition of the Proceedings of ...
(Date:9/23/2014)... the washing up, negotiating rights to the TV remote control ... university for the new academic year are about to learn ... business. , And now research from academics at The University ... to monitor their energy usage in the home could be ... a team of technology experts and psychologists found that meters ...
(Date:9/23/2014)... 2014 Research and Markets  has announced ... and Opportunities, 2019" report to their offering. ... enhancing security and protection in private as well as ... country,s government is focusing on using biometric systems to ... national IDs that are of crucial importance to the ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Immune system is key ally in cyberwar against cancer 2Immune system is key ally in cyberwar against cancer 3Smart meters could cause conflict for housemates, study shows 2Smart meters could cause conflict for housemates, study shows 3India Biometrics Market Forecast and Opportunities, 2019 2India Biometrics Market Forecast and Opportunities, 2019 3
... Military, homeland security, law enforcement and other first-responder ... to attend the 2009 Force Protection Equipment Demonstration ... 600 exhibits will be presented at Stafford County ... Quantico, VA. Live-fire small arms and explosives survivability ...
... Technology (Caltech) and the University of California at San ... Caltech experimental data to show just how amino-acid chains ... Their insights were recently published in the February 10 ... of Sciences (PNAS). The paper details the ...
... human genome eight years ago, enormous progress has been ... of most human genes is still barely understood. An ... gene or protein is to compare its sequence with ... experimentally easier to investigate. From the functions of related ...
Cached Biology News:Demonstration Targets Terrorism 2Caltech and UCSD researchers shed light on how proteins find their shapes 2Relationships in rank and file 2Relationships in rank and file 3Relationships in rank and file 4
Other biology definitionOther Tags