Navigation Links
Oncogene


An oncogene is a gene that can cause a cell to develop into a tumor cell, possibly resulting in cancer.

Contents

Protooncogene

A protooncogene is a gene that is involved in signal transduction and execution of mitogenic signals, usually through its protein product. Upon activation, it (or its product) becomes a tumor inducing agent, an oncogene.

Activation

The protooncogene can become an oncogene by a relatively small modification of its original function. There are two basic activation types:

  • A mutation within a protooncogene can cause a change in the protein structure, caused by
  • An increase in protein concentration, caused by
    • an increase of protein expression (through misregulation)
    • an increase of protein stability, prolonging its existence and thus its activity in the cell
    • a gene duplication, resulting in a doubled amount of protein in the cell

Oncogene

Growth factors

Growth factors are usually secreted by a few special cells to induce cell proliferation in other cells. If a cell that usually does not produce growth factors suddenly starts to do so (because it developed an oncogene), it will thereby induce its own uncontrolled proliferation (autocrine loop ), as well as the proliferation of neighboring cells.

Protein kinases and related proteins

There are six known classes of protein kinases and related proteins that can become an oncogene:

  1. Receptor tyrosine kinases that become constitutive (permanently) active like the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), etc.
  2. Cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases like the Src-family, Syk-ZAP-70 family and BTK family of tyrosine kinases.
  3. Regulatory GTPases, for example, the Ras protein.
  4. Cytoplasmic Serine/Threonine kinases and their regulatory subunits, for example, the Raf kinase , and cyclin-dependent kinases (through overexpression).
  5. Adaptor proteins in signal transduction.
  6. Transcription factors.

Related articles


'"/>


(Date:4/24/2017)... , April 24, 2017 Janice ... partner with  Identity Strategy Partners, LLP (IdSP) , ... or without President Trump,s March 6, 2017 ... Entry , refugee vetting can be instilled with greater ... (Right now, all refugee applications are suspended by ...
(Date:4/18/2017)... , April 18, 2017  Socionext Inc., a global expert ... a media edge server, the M820, which features the company,s hybrid ... software provided by Tera Probe, Inc., will be showcased during the ... the NAB show at the Las Vegas ... ...
(Date:4/13/2017)... SANTA MONICA, Calif. , April 13, 2017 /PRNewswire/ ... New York will feature emerging and ... Innovation Summits. Both Innovation Summits will run alongside the ... variety of speaker sessions, panels and demonstrations focused on ... east coast,s largest advanced design and manufacturing event will ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
Other biology definition