Navigation Links
Electron transfer chain


The electron transfer chain (also called the electron transport chain, ETC, or simply electron transport), is any series of protein complexes and lipid-soluable messengers that convert the reductive potential of energized electrons into a cross-membrane proton gradient. This proton motive force created by the ETC is used to power membrane transporters and adenosine triphosphate synthesis by ATP synthase (aka the F0F1 particle). They are used in photophosphorylation and respiration.

In eukaryotes, including humans, an ETC is found spanning the inner mitochondrial membrane and accepts electrons from electron donors such as NADH or succinate, shuttles these electrons from within the mitochondrial matrix across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the intermembrane space, where the ultimately reduce oxygen.

There are five complexes normally associated with the mitochondrial electron transfer chain.

All of these are proteolipid complexes, with the first four containing either flavins, iron-sulfur clusters, copper centers, or heme moieties. Complexes I, III, and IV are proton pumps. Complex II is part of the Krebs cycle and does not pump protons, and Complex V uses the electrochemical potential generated to create ATP. Complex IV is the terminus of the electron transfer chain, where oxygen from the lungs is reduced by electrons and hydrogen protons (provided by NADH and/or FADH2) to make water.

Cytochrome c is also an essential part of the electron transfer chain. It is a soluble protein loosely associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane, and transfers electrons between Complexes III and IV.

The electron transfer chain can be inhibited by various poisons. Among them we can cite carbon monoxide, cyanide, azide, antimycin, amytal and rotenone.

See also:


'"/>


(Date:4/17/2017)... 2017 NXT-ID, Inc. (NASDAQ: NXTD ) ... of its 2016 Annual Report on Form 10-K on Thursday April ... ... in the Investor Relations section of the Company,s website at ... at http://www.sec.gov . 2016 Year Highlights: ...
(Date:4/11/2017)... BROOKLYN, N.Y. , April 11, 2017 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ ... identical fingerprints, but researchers at the New York ... University College of Engineering have found that partial ... fingerprint-based security systems used in mobile phones and ... previously thought. The vulnerability lies in ...
(Date:4/5/2017)... April 4, 2017 KEY FINDINGS ... expand at a CAGR of 25.76% during the forecast ... the primary factor for the growth of the stem ... https://www.reportbuyer.com/product/4807905/ MARKET INSIGHTS The global stem cell ... application, and geography. The stem cell market of the ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
Other biology definition