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Cytotoxic T cell

A cytotoxic (or TC) T cell is a T cell (a type of white blood cell) which has on its surface antigen receptors that can bind to fragments of antigens displayed by the Class I MHC molecules of virus infected somatic cells and tumor cells.

Once activated by a MHC-antigen complex, TC cells release the protein perforin, which forms pores in the target cell's plasma membrane; this causes ions and water to flow into the target cell, making it expand and eventually lyse. TC also release granzyme, a serine protease, that can enter target cells via the perforin-formed pore and induce apoptosis (cell death).

Most TC cells have present on the cell surface the protein CD8 , which is attracted to portions of the Class I MHC molecule. This affinity keeps the TC cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen-specific activation. TC cells with CD8 surface protein are called CD8+ T cells.


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