Navigation Links
Cytoplasm


Cytoplasm is the colloidal, semi-fluid matter contained within the cell's plasma membrane, in which organelles are suspended. In contrast to the protoplasm, the cytoplasm does not include the cell nucleus, the interior of which is made up of nucleoplasm.

Components of the cytoplasm

The aqueous component of the cytoplasm (making up 80 percent of it) is composed of ions and soluble macromolecules like enzymes, carbohydrates, different salts and proteins, as well as a great proportion of ARN. The cytoplasm's watery component is also known as hyaloplasm .

The watery component can be more or less gel-like or liquid depending on the milieu's conditions and the activity phases of the cell. In the first case, it is named cytogel and is a viscid solid mass. In the second case, called cytosol, is a liquid in movement. In general, margin regions of the cell are gel-like and the cell's interior is liquid.

The insoluble constituents of the cytoplasm are organelles (such as the mitochondria, the chloroplast, lysosomes, peroxysomes, ribosomes), several vacuoles, cytoskeletons as well as complex membrane structures (e.g. endoplasmic reticulums or the golgi apparatus).

Differences between animal and vegetal cytoplasm

While all cells possess a cytoplasm, cells from different biological domains can differ widely in the characteristics of their cytoplasms. In the animal kingdom, cytoplasm occupies nearly half the cell's volume while in vegetal cells, the cytoplasm occupies much less space because of the presences of vacuoles.

Function

The cytoplasm plays a mechanical role, i.e. to maintain the shape, the consistency of the cell and to provide suspension to the organelles. It is also a storage place for chemical substances indispensable to life. Vital metabolic reactions take place here, for example anaerobic glycolysis and proteic synthesis.

See also : microtubules, vesicle


'"/>


(Date:7/28/2014)... Amundsen reached the South Pole in 1911, but new ... any human. , Using data from 16 ice cores ... including the South Pole, a group led by Joe ... Nevada, created the most accurate and precise reconstruction to ... new record, described in an article published today in ...
(Date:7/28/2014)... in the United States have a circulatory problem of ... painful and may even require surgery in serious cases. ... and, in turn, limb amputation. , At The University ... School, scientists tested a non-surgical preventative treatment in a ... with increased blood circulation. Their proof-of-concept study appears ...
(Date:7/28/2014)... John Essigmann and colleagues from the University of Washington had ... they could induce the virus to mutate uncontrollably, they could ... strategy that our immune system uses against many viruses. ... to mutate at an enhanced rate, as expected. But it ... clinical trial reported in 2011. In a new study, however, ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Lead pollution beat explorers to South Pole, persists today 2Lead pollution beat explorers to South Pole, persists today 3Scientists discover genetic switch that can prevent peripheral vascular disease in mice 2Forced mutations doom HIV 2Forced mutations doom HIV 3Forced mutations doom HIV 4
... from the University of York suggests protected areas in ... iconic Acacia tree., Acacia, the thorny flat-topped tree that ... ecosystem diversity. However, the researchers found that the majority ... protected area network, which includes national parks, nature and ...
... is available in German . , ... University,s Center for Biotechnology (CeBiTec) have paid off: the ... Machine competition, (iGEM) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ... their project was to develop a biological filter that ...
... studying freely behaving rats have found that their neurons often ... to be published in EPJ B . These findings ... Bahia Federal University in Salvador, and his colleagues from other ... neuronal networks, memory could be explored in the future. ...
Cached Biology News:Protected areas in East Africa may not be conserving iconic plants 2Protected areas in East Africa may not be conserving iconic plants 3Synthetic biofilter wins through to the top 'Sweet 16' in Boston 2
Other biology definitionOther Tags