Navigation Links
Colchicine


Colchicine is a highly poisonous alkaloid, originally extracted from plants of the genus Colchicum (autumn crocus, meadow saffron) with the chemical formula C22H25NO6. Originally used to treat rheumatic complaints and especially gout, it was also prescribed for its cathartic and emetic effects. Its present use is mainly in the treatment of gout.

Contents

History

The colchicine alkaloid was first isolated in 1820 by the two French chemists P.S. Pelletier and J. Caventon (Pelletier PS, Caventon J. Ann. Chim. Phys. 1820;14:69).

Colchicum extract was first described as a treatment for gout in De Materia Medica of Padanius Dioscorides.

It was later identified as a tricyclic alkaloid and its pain relieving and anti-inflammatory effects for gout were linked to it binding with the protein tubulin.

Pharmacology

Biological function

The molecular formula of colchicine is C22H25NO6. Name is N-[(7S)-5,6,7,9-tetrahydro-1,2,3,10-tetramethoxy-9-oxobenzo[a]heptalen-7-yl)acetamide].

It inhibits the cytoskeleton by binding to tubulin, one of the main constituents of microtubules. Apart from inhibiting mitosis, a process heavily dependent on cytoskeletal changes, it also inhibits neutrophil motility and activity, leading to a net anti-inflammatory effect.

Colchicine as medicine

Colchicine is FDA-approved for the treatment of gout and also for familial Mediterranean fever, amyloidosis, and scleroderma. Side-effects include gastro-intestinal upset and neutropenia. Starting the drug early during an attack of gout can exacerbate the symptoms. High doses can also damage bone marrow and lead to anemia. It's not used in the treatment of cancer, as the dose required would lead to intolerable side-effects.

Toxicity

Poisoning resembles intoxication with arsenic: symptoms start 2 to 5 hours after the toxic dose has been ingested and include burning in the mouth and throat, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain and kidney failure. Death from respiratory failure can follow. There is no antidote.

Laboratory use

In laboratory setting colchicine is also used for inducing polyploidy in plant cells during cellular division.

External links


'"/>


(Date:8/28/2014)... German . The ... a striking pattern of blue stripes alternating with golden stripes. ... and yellow cells emerge during growth in the skin of ... to compose the characteristic colour pattern. ,While it ... to form proper stripes, the embryonic origin of the pigment ...
(Date:8/28/2014)... Access to Research Careers) Program has announced the ... America,s 27th Annual Mouse Molecular Genetics Conference from ... Grove, California. These awards are meant to ... scientists from underrepresented groups into the mainstream of ... participation of young scientists at the Genetics Society ...
(Date:8/28/2014)... MARC (Maximizing Access to Research Careers) Program has ... College of Sports Medicine,s Conference on Integrative Physiology ... Florida. These awards are meant to promote ... from underrepresented groups into the mainstream of the ... of young scientists at the American College of ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):How the zebrafish gets its stripes 2How the zebrafish gets its stripes 3
... This news release is available in ... a major food staple for about 400 million people in the ... banana yields worldwide are severely threatened by pests. Dirk Hlscher from ... an international team of researchers have discovered that some banana varieties ...
... Shenzhen, China - Chinese researchers from Rui-Jin Hospital, ... other institutes identified the recurrent T372R mutation in ... related with insulinoma oncogenesis, implicating a potential marker ... neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). The latest study was published ...
... protein deacylases has received considerable attention in recent years ... metabolic regulation. In a new study published in the ... Buck Institute researchers have now identified widespread regulation of ... Using a novel quantitative proteomic method developed at ...
Cached Biology News:Toxic substances in banana plants kill root pests 2Toxic substances in banana plants kill root pests 3Scientists identified T372R mutation as potential target for diagnosis and treatment of insulinoma 2SIRT5 regulation has dramatic effect on mitochondrial metabolism 2SIRT5 regulation has dramatic effect on mitochondrial metabolism 3
Other biology definitionOther Tags