Navigation Links
Cellulose


Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a long-chain polymer polysaccharide carbohydrate, of beta-glucose. It forms the primary structural component of plants and is not digestible by humans.

History and Applications

Cellulose is a common material in plant cell walls and was first noted as such in 1838. It occurs naturally in almost pure form only in cotton fibre; in combination with lignin and any hemicellulose, it is found in all plant material. Cellulose is the most abundant form of living terrestrial biomass (Crawford, R. L. 1981. Lignin biodegradation and transformation, John Wiley and Sons, New York.) Cellulose, especially cotton linters , is used in the manufacture of nitrocellulose, historically used in smokeless gunpowder.

Some animals, particularly ruminants and termites, can digest cellulose with the help of symbiotic micro-organisms - see methanogen.

Cellulose is processed to make cellophane and rayon, and more recently Modal, a textile derived from beechwood cellulose.

Cellulose is also used within the laboratory as a solid-state substrate for thin layer chromotography.

Chemistry

Cellulose monomers (beta-glucose) are linked together through 1,4 glycosidic bonds. Cellulose is a straight chain (no coiling occurs). In microfibrils, the multiple hydroxide groups hydrogen bond with each other, holding the chains firmly together and contributing to their high tensile strength. This strength is important in cell walls, where they are meshed into a carbohydrate matrix, helping keep plants rigid.

Given a cellulose material, the portion that does not dissolve in a 17.5% solution of sodium hydroxide at 20 deg C. is Alpha Cellulose, which is true cellulose; the portion that dissolves and then precipitates upon acidification is Beta Cellulose, and the proportion that dissolves but does not precipitate is Gamma Cellulose.

See also


'"/>


(Date:7/24/2014)... Bhavani Iyer, O.D., a low vision specialist at The ... Medical School, has been awarded a grant to help ... with eyeglasses, medication or surgery. , Even with corrective ... at best. However, there are a variety of low ... to help offset their vision loss. , Iyer is ...
(Date:7/24/2014)... experts gathered at NJIT this week for an all-day ... U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to dredge toxic sediment ... , The EPA has called the plan, which proposes ... capping sections of the riverbed, one of the largest ... be dredged and disposed off-site. , "We need to ...
(Date:7/24/2014)... To reduce fire hazard in the United States, wildland ... woody shrubs and suppressed trees (ladder fuels). These ... periods of low fire danger in order to dispose ... hazardous air pollutants, managers often cover all or part ... referred to as agricultural plastic, in order to keep ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):UTHealth Dr. Bhavani Iyer awarded low vision grant 2Experts Weigh the Pros and Cons of a $1.7 Billion EPA Cleanup Plan for the Passaic River at an NJIT 2Study gives new perspective on agricultural plastic, debris burning, and air quality 2
... to the growing list of genetic variants that determine ... by Cell Press on December 30 in the ... previously unknown variants associated with height and might provide ... Although environmental variables can impact attained adult height, ...
... large quantities of nitrate-rich fertilizer to realize optimal ... to balance the amount of nitrogen needed for ... leach into ground and surface waters. Increased interest ... to identify genotypes that have a characteristic called ...
... producers have traditionally relied heavily on hand thinning, a ... increasing labor costs and a limited workforce, peach and ... such as string thinners to minimize the need for ... promising results when it was evaluated in four U.S. ...
Cached Biology News:Large-scale analysis identifies new genetic alterations associated with height 2Improving nitrogen use efficiency lessens environmental impact 2Hybrid string blossom thinner tested in peach orchards 2
Other biology definitionOther Tags