Navigation Links
Calvin cycle


The Calvin cycle (also known as Calvin-Benson cycle) is a series of biochemical reactions taking place in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic organisms. It was discovered by Melvin Calvin and Andy Benson at the University of California, Berkeley. It is one of the light-independent reactions and occurs in the stroma.

During photosynthesis, light energy has been converted into chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH. The light-independent Calvin cycle uses the energy from these short-lived energy carriers to convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds that can be used by the organism. This set of reactions is also called carbon fixation. The key enzyme of the cycle is called RubisCO.

The total sum of reactions in the Calvin cycle is the following:

6 CO2 + 12 NADPH + 12 H2O + 18 ATP → C6H12O6 + 12 NADP+ + 18 ADP + 18 Pi

Reactions in the Calvin Cycle

Ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate (RuBP) + carbon dioxide → 3-phosphoroglycerate (catalysed by RubisCO)

3 C5H8P2O11 + 3 CO2 → 6 C3H3P1O6 + H2O

3-phosphoroglycerate + ATP → 1,3 bisphosphoroglycerate + ADP

6 C3H3P1O6 + 6 ATP → 6 C3H3P2O10 + 6 ADP

1,3 bisphosphoroglycerate + NADPH → 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde + NADP+ + Pi

6 C3H3P2O10 + 6 NADPH → 6 C3H5P1O6 + 6 NADP+ + 6 Pi

3-phosphoglyceraldehyde → ribulose 5-phosphate + Pi

5 C3H5P1O6 → 3 C5H8P1O7 + 2 Pi

ribulose 5-phosphate + ACP→ ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate + ADP

3 C5H8P1O7 + 3 ATP → 3 C5H8P2O11 + 3 ADP

The missing 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde molecule is converted into glucose.


The known Calvin cycle as of 1997 is as follows:

- Ribulose 5-Phosphate → (3 ATP → 3ADP) → Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate.

- Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate + 3 Carbon Dioxide → 3-Phosphoglycerate.

- 3-Phosphoglycerate → (6 ATP → 6 ADP) → 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate.

- 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate → (6 NADPH → 6 NADP+) → 3 GAP + 3 DHAP + 6 Pi

- GAP + DHAP → Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate.

- Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate → (H2O → Pi) → Fructose 6-phosphate.

- GAP + Fructose 6-phosphate → Erythrose 4-phosphate + Xylulose 5-phosphate.

- DHAP + Erythrose 4-phosphate → Sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphate.

- Sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphate → (H2O → Pi) → Sedoheptulose 7-phosphate.

- Sedoheptuose 7-phosphate + GAP → Ribose 5-phosphate + Xylulose 5-phosphate.

- Xylulose 5-phosphate → (spontaneous degradation) → Ribulose 5-phosphate.

- Ribose 5-phosphate → (spontaneous degradation) → Ribulose 5-Phosphate.


'"/>


(Date:4/16/2014)... Doucet of the Centre INRSInstitut Armand-Frappier has just received ... (NIH) in the amount of nearly US$600,000. The 5-year ... of tiny proteins called RNases and to explore their ... as in inflammation and asthma. , "Receiving ... itself," said Yves Bgin, vice president of research and ...
(Date:4/16/2014)... border" a densely packed array of finger-like ... the cells that line our intestines., Vanderbilt University ... this specialized structure, which is critical for absorbing ... April 10 in the journal Cell , ... border assembly and increase our understanding of intestinal ...
(Date:4/16/2014)... memories improves during childhood, associated with structural changes ... and parietal cortices. New research from UC Davis ... this crucial time. Eventually, that could give insights ... into and during adolescence and affect memory, such ... the middle of the brain, the hippocampus plays ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):High-level NIH grant goes to professor Nicolas Doucet of INRS 2Vanderbilt researchers discover how intestinal cells build nutrient-absorbing surface 2Vanderbilt researchers discover how intestinal cells build nutrient-absorbing surface 3How kids' brain structures grow as memory develops 2
... energy may soon be possible with new ceramic microwave ... same material could help with organic waste remediation. "Currently, ... cold dish because the dishes are transparent to microwaves," ... of Agricultural Sciences at Penn State. "The plates are ...
... Nutrition, Health and Aging publishes high-quality scientific articles, ... the aging process. The editors of JNHA aim to ... of nutrition in aging over the whole life-span. The ... and targets researchers and clinicians. "The partnership ...
... Indiana University researchers have introduced Laboratree, a ... collaboration. Designed to streamline research and enhance ... will enable scientists to securely manage research papers ... messages, author blogs, and customize personal and group ...
Cached Biology News:Ceramic material revs up microwaving 2Indiana U researchers launch social networking and research management tool for scientists 2
Other biology definitionOther Tags