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Origin of life

This article focuses on modern scientific research on the origin of life. For alternate uses, see origin of life (disambiguation).

Research into the origin of life is a limited field of research despite its profound impact on biology and human understanding of the natural world. Progress in this field is generally slow and sporadic, though it still draws the attention of many due to the gravity of question being investigated. A few facts give insight into the conditions in which life may have emerged, but the mechanisms by which non-life became life are elusive.

For the observed evolution of life on earth, see the timeline of life.


History of the concept: abiogenesis

Main article: Abiogenesis

Research into the origin of life is the modern incarnation of the ancient concept of abiogenesis. Abiogenesis, in its most general sense, is the generation of life from non-living matter. The term is primarily used in the context of biology and the origin of life. Abiogenesis was long considered to be a very common occurrence until the Law of Biogenesis (omne vivum ex ovo or "all life from other life") became firmly established in modern biology.

The modern definition of abiogenesis is concerned with the formation of the simplest forms of life from primordial chemicals. This is significantly different from the concept of Aristotelian abiogenesis, which postulated the formation of complex organisms. This article reviews different hypotheses for modern abiogenetic processes that are currently under debate.

Current models of the origin of life

There is no truly "standard" model of the origin of life, however most currently accepted models build in one way or another upon the following discoveries, which are listed in a rough order of postulated emergence:

  1. Plausible pre-biotic conditions result in the creation of the basic small molecules of life. This was demonstrated in the Urey-Miller experiment by Stanley L. Miller and Harold C. Urey in 1953.
  2. Phospholipids spontaneously form lipid bilayers, the basic structure of a cell membrane.
  3. Procedures for producing random RNA molecules can produce "ribozymes", which are able to produce more of themselves under certain specific conditions.

The origin (see Origin of organic molecules) of basic biomolecules such as components of amino acids, while not settled, is less controversial than the significance and order of steps 2 and 3. As of 2004, no one has yet synthesized a "protocell" using basic components which has the necessary properties of life (the so-called "bottom-up-approach"). Without such a proof-of-principle, explanations have tended to be short on specifics. However, some researchers are working in this field, notably Jack Szostak at Harvard. Others have argued that a "top-down approach" is more feasible. One such approach attempted by Craig Venter and others at The Institute for Genomic Research involved engineering existing prokaryotic cells with progressively fewer genes, attempting to discern at which point the most minimal requirements for life were reached.

Origin of organic molecules: Miller and Wchtershuser's theories

The "Miller experiments" (including the original Miller–Urey experiment of 1953, by Harold Urey and his graduate student Stanley Miller) are performed under simulated conditions resembling those thought at the time to have existed shortly after Earth first accreted from the primordial solar nebula. The experiment used a reducing mixture of gases (methane, ammonia and hydrogen). However, it should be noted that the exact composition of the prebiotic atmosphere of earth is currently somewhat controversial. Other less reducing gases produce a lower yield and variety and the presence of free oxygen prevents any organomolecules from forming.

The experiment showed that many of the basic organic molecules that form the building blocks of modern life can be formed spontaneously. Simple organic molecules are of course long way from fully functional self-replicating life forms; however, in an environment with no pre-existing life these molecules may have accumulated and provided a rich environment for chemical evolution ("soup theory"). On the other hand, spontaneous formation of complex polymers from abiotically generated monomers under these conditions is not at all a straightforward process. And there is no evidence in the geological record that any soup existed. Brooks and Shaw (1973) commented:

"If there ever was a primitive soup, then we would expect to find at least somewhere on this planet either massive sediments containing enormous amounts of the various nitrogenous organic compounds, acids, purines, pyrimidines, and the like; or in much metamorphosed sediments we should find vast amounts of nitrogenous cokes. In fact no such materials have been found anywhere on earth."

Other sources of complex molecules have been postulated, including sources of extra-terrestrial stellar or interstellar origin. For example, from spectral analyses, organic molecules are known to be present in comets and meteorites. In 2004, a team detected traces of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in a nebula, the most complex molecule, to that date, found in space.

It can be argued that the most crucial challenge unanswered by this theory is how the relatively simple organic building blocks polymerise and form even more complex structures, interacting in consistent ways to form a protocell. In the absence of a reliable source of energy, these processes contradict the laws of thermodynamics (especially the increase of entropy). For one thing, hydrolysis is favored over condensation polymerization; for another, the Miller experiment produces many substances that would undergo cross-reactions with the amino acids or terminate the peptide chain.

A possible answer to this polymerization conundrum was provided in 1980s by Gnter Wchtershuser, in his iron-sulfur world theory. In this theory, he postulated the evolution of (bio)chemical pathways as fundamentals of the evolution of life. Moreover, he presented a consistent system of tracing today's biochemistry back to ancestral reactions that provide alternative pathways to the synthesis of organic building blocks from simple gaseous compounds. In contrast to the classical Miller experiments, which depend on external sources of energy (e. g. simulated lightning or UV irradiation), "Wchtershuser systems" come with a built-in source of energy, sulfides of iron and other minerals (e. g. pyrite). The energy released from redox reactions of these metal sulfides is not only available for the synthesis of organic molecules, but also for the formation of oligomers and polymers. It is therefore hypothesized that such systems may be able to evolve into autocatalytic sets of self-replicating, metabolically active entities that would predate the life forms known today. The experiment as performed, produced a relatively small yield of dipeptides (0.4–12.4%) and a smaller yield of tripeptides (0.003%) and the authors note that: "under these same conditions dipeptides hydrolysed rapidly." Another criticism of the result is that the experiment did not include any organomolecules that would most likely cross-react or chain-terminate. (Huber and Wchtershuser, 1998)

Another unsolved issue in chemical evolution is the origin of homochirality, i.e. all monomers having the same "handedness". This is essential for both proteins and DNA, yet many prebiotic simulations produce a racemic, or 50/50 mixture of left- and right-handed forms.

From organic molecules to protocells

As the question how organic molecules form a protocell is largely unanswered, there are many different hypotheses regarding the path that might have been taken from simple organic molecules to protocells, cells, and metabolism. Some of these postulate early appearance of nucleic acids ("genes-first"), whereas the evolution of biochemical reactions and pathways is regarded as moving force of early evolution ("metabolism-first"). Recently, trends are emerging to create hybrid models that combine aspects of both.

"Genes first" models: the RNA world

Main article: RNA world hypothesis

The RNA world hypothesis, for example, suggests that short RNA molecules could have spontaneously formed that would then catalyze their own continuing replication. Early cell membranes could have formed spontaneously from proteinoids, protein-like molecules that are produced when amino acid solutions are heated. Other possibilities include systems of chemical reactions taking place within clay substrates or on the surface of pyrite rocks. At this time however, these various hypotheses have incomplete evidence supporting them. Many of them can be simulated and tested in the lab, but a lack of undisturbed sedimentary rock from that early in Earth's history leaves few opportunities to determine what may have actually happened in reality.

"Metabolism first" models: iron-sulfur world and others

Several models reject the idea of the self-replication of a "naked-gene" and postulate the emergence of a primitive metabolism which could provide an environment for the later emergence of RNA replication. One of the earliest incarnations of this idea was put forward in 1924 with Alexander Oparin's notion of primitive self-replicating vesicles which predated the discovery of the structure of DNA. More recent variants in the 1980s and 1990s include Gnter Wchtershuser's iron-sulfur world theory and models introduced by Christian de Duve based on the chemistry of thioesters. More abstract and theoretical arguments for the plausibility of the emergence of metabolism without the presence of genes include a mathematical model introduced by Freeman Dyson in the early 1980s, and Stuart Kauffman's notion of collectively autocatalytic sets discussed later in that decade.

Hybrid models

A growing realization of the inadequacy of either pure "genes-first" or "metabolism-first" models is leading the trend towards models that incorporate aspects of each.

Other models

Clay theory of the origin of life

A hypothesis for the origin of life based on clay was forwarded by Dr A. Graham Cairns-Smith of Glasgow University in 1985 and adopted as a plausible illustration by just a handful of other scientists (including Richard Dawkins). Clay theory postulates complex organic molecules arising gradually on a pre-existing, non-organic replication platform - silicate crystals in solution. Complexity in companion molecules developed as a function of selection pressures on types of clay crystal is then exapted to serve the replication of organic molecules independently of their silicate "launch stage".

Cairns-Smith is a staunch critic of other models of chemical evolution (see Genetic Takeover: And the Mineral Origins of Life ISBN 0-52123-312-7). However, he admits, that like many models of the origin of life, his own also has its shortcomings (Horgan 1991).

"Deep-hot biosphere" model of Gold

A controversial theory put forward by Thomas Gold in the 1990s has life first developing not on the surface of the earth, but several kilometers below the surface. It is now known that microbial life is plentiful up to five kilometers below the earth's surface in the form of archaea, which are generally considered to have originated around the same time or earlier than bacteria, most of which live on the surface including the oceans. It is claimed that discovery of microbial life below the surface of another body in our solar system would lend significant credence to this theory. He also noted that a trickle of food from a deep, unreachable, source promotes survival because life arising in a puddle of organic material is likely to consume all of its food and become extinct.

"Primitive" extraterrestrial life

An alternative to Earthly abiogenesis is the hypothesis that primitive life may have originally formed extraterrestrially (note that exogenesis is related to, but is not the same as the notion of panspermia). Organic compounds are relatively common in space, especially in the outer solar system where volatiles are not evaporated by solar heating. Comets are encrusted by outer layers of dark material, thought to be a tar-like substance composed of complex organic material formed from simple carbon compounds after reactions initiated mostly by irradiation by ultraviolet light. It is supposed that a rain of cometary material on the early Earth could have brought significant quantities of complex organic molecules, and that it is possible that primitive life itself may have formed in space was brought to the surface along with it. A related hypothesis holds that life may have formed first on early Mars, and been transported to Earth when crustal material was blasted off of Mars by asteroid and comet impacts to later fall to Earth's surface. Both of these hypotheses are even more difficult to find evidence for, and may have to wait for samples to be taken from comets and Mars for study.

Creation and intelligent design

Main articles: Creationism, Intelligent design

Creationists and those ascribing to Intelligent design assert that life was created by an intelligent being, and could only have been created by an intelligent being; in the case of creationists, this designer is believed to be God.

Relevant fields

  • Astrobiology is a field that may shed light on the nature of life in general, instead of just life as we know it on Earth, and may give clues as to how life originates.
  • Complex systems

See also


  • PMID 11882894
  • (Cited on p. 108).
  • Huber, C. and Wchterhuser, G., (1998) "Peptides by activation of amino acids with CO on (Ni,Fe)S surfaces: implications for the origin of life". Science 281, 670–672. (Cited on p. 108).
  • Brooks, J. and Shaw, G., 1973. Origins and Development of Living Systems. Academic Press, London and New York, p. 359.

External links

Creationist/Intelligent Design critiques


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