Navigation Links
Oncogene


An oncogene is a gene that can cause a cell to develop into a tumor cell, possibly resulting in cancer.

Contents

Protooncogene

A protooncogene is a gene that is involved in signal transduction and execution of mitogenic signals, usually through its protein product. Upon activation, it (or its product) becomes a tumor inducing agent, an oncogene.

Activation

The protooncogene can become an oncogene by a relatively small modification of its original function. There are two basic activation types:

  • A mutation within a protooncogene can cause a change in the protein structure, caused by
  • An increase in protein concentration, caused by
    • an increase of protein expression (through misregulation)
    • an increase of protein stability, prolonging its existence and thus its activity in the cell
    • a gene duplication, resulting in a doubled amount of protein in the cell

Oncogene

Growth factors

Growth factors are usually secreted by a few special cells to induce cell proliferation in other cells. If a cell that usually does not produce growth factors suddenly starts to do so (because it developed an oncogene), it will thereby induce its own uncontrolled proliferation (autocrine loop ), as well as the proliferation of neighboring cells.

Protein kinases and related proteins

There are six known classes of protein kinases and related proteins that can become an oncogene:

  1. Receptor tyrosine kinases that become constitutive (permanently) active like the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), etc.
  2. Cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases like the Src-family, Syk-ZAP-70 family and BTK family of tyrosine kinases.
  3. Regulatory GTPases, for example, the Ras protein.
  4. Cytoplasmic Serine/Threonine kinases and their regulatory subunits, for example, the Raf kinase , and cyclin-dependent kinases (through overexpression).
  5. Adaptor proteins in signal transduction.
  6. Transcription factors.

Related articles


'"/>


(Date:4/19/2016)... , UAE, April 20, 2016 ... be implemented as a compact web-based "all-in-one" system solution ... the biometric fingerprint reader or the door interface with ... of modern access control systems. The minimal dimensions of ... ID readers into the building installations offer considerable freedom ...
(Date:4/13/2016)...  IMPOWER physicians supporting Medicaid patients in ... standard in telehealth thanks to a new partnership with ... IMPOWER patients can routinely track key health measurements, such ... and, when they opt in, share them with IMPOWER ... local retail location at no cost. By leveraging this ...
(Date:3/23/2016)... Massachusetts , March 23, 2016 /PRNewswire/ ... im Interesse erhöhter Sicherheit Gesichts- und Stimmerkennung ... Xura, Inc. (NASDAQ: MESG ), ... bekannt, dass das Unternehmen mit SpeechPro zusammenarbeitet, ... aus der Finanzdienstleistungsbranche, wird die Möglichkeit angeboten, ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
Other biology definition