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Limnology is a discipline that concerns the study of in-land waters (both saline and fresh), specifically lakes, ponds and rivers (both natural and manmade), including their biological, physical, chemical, and hydrological aspects.

Franois-Alphonse Forel (1841-1912) established the field with his studies of Lake Geneva. Limnology traditionally is closely related to hydrobiology , which is concerned with the application of the principles and methods of physics, chemistry, geology, and geography to ecological problems.



  • American Society of Limnology and Oceanography
  • Australian Society for Limnology
  • European Society of Limnology and Oceanography
  • German Society of Limnology (
  • Italian Association for Oceanology and Limnology
  • The Japanese Society of Limnology
  • Societas Internationalis Limnologiae (


  • Advances in Limnology
  • Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology
  • Journal of Limnology
  • Limnologica
  • Limnology and Oceanography

See also


  • Gerald A. Cole , Textbook of Limnology, 4th ed. (Waveland Press , 1994) ISBN 0881338001
  • A.J.Horne & C.R. Goldman : Limnology (1994), ISBN 0070236739
  • G. E. Hutchinson , A Treatise on Limnology, 3 vols. (1957-1975) - classic but dated
  • H.B.N. Hynes , The Ecology of Running Waters (1970)
  • Jacob Kalff , Limnology (Prentice Hall , 2001)
  • B. Moss , Ecology of Fresh Waters (Blackwell, 1998)
  • Robert G. Wetzel , Limnology: Lake and River Ecosystems, 3rd ed. (Academic Press , 2001) ISBN 0127447601 - highly regarded
  • Robert G. Wetzel & Gene E. Likens , Limnological Analyses, 3rd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2000)


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