Navigation Links
Adenosine triphosphate

For other uses of the initials ATP, see ATP (disambiguation)

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the nucleotide known in biochemistry as the "molecular currency" of intracellular energy transfer; that is, ATP is able to store and transport chemical energy within cells. ATP also plays an important role in the synthesis of nucleic acids. ATP molecules are also used to store the energy plants make in cellular respiration.


Chemical properties

Chemically, ATP consists of adenosine and three phosphate groups. It has the empirical formula C10H16N5O13P3, and the chemical formula C10H8N4O2NH2(OH)2(PO3H)3H, with a molecular mass of 507.184 u. The phosphoryl groups starting with that on AMP are referred to as the alpha, beta, and gamma phosphates. The biochemical name for ATP is 9--D-ribofuranosyladenine-5'-triphosphate.


ATP can be produced by various cellular processes, most typically in mitochondria by oxidative phosphorylation under the catalytic influence of ATP synthase or in the case of plants in chloroplasts by photosynthesis. The main fuels for ATP synthesis are glucose and fatty acids. Initially glucose is broken down into pyruvate in the cytosol. Two molecules of ATP are generated for each molecule of glucose. The terminal stages of ATP synthesis are carried out in the mitochondrion and can generate up to 36 ATP.

ATP in the human body

The total quantity of ATP in the human body is about 0.1 mole. The energy used by human cells requires the hydrolysis of 200 to 300 moles of ATP daily. This means that each ATP molecule is recycled 2000 to 3000 times during a single day. ATP cannot be stored, hence its synthesis must closely follow its consumption.

Other triphosphates

Living cells also have other "high-energy" nucleoside triphosphates, such as guanosine triphosphate. Between them and ATP, energy can be easily transferred with reactions such as those catalyzed by nucleoside diphosphokinase : Energy is released when hydrolysis of the phosphate-phosphate bonds is carried out. This energy can be used by a variety of enzymes, motor proteins , and transport proteins to carry out the work of the cell. Also, the hydrolysis yields free inorganic phosphate and adenosine diphosphate, which can be broken down further to another phosphate ion and adenosine monophosphate. ATP can also be broken down to adenosine monophosphate directly, with the formation of pyrophosphate. This last reaction has the advantage of being an effectively irreversible process in aqueous solution.

Reaction of ADP with GTP


There is talk of using ATP as a power source for nanotechnology and implants. Artificial pacemakers could become independent of batteries.

See also

External link


(Date:10/2/2015)... DUBLIN , Oct. 02 2015 ... addition of the "Enforcing the Law Using ... ) has announced the addition of ... report to their offering. --> Research ... addition of the "Enforcing the Law Using ...
(Date:9/30/2015)... GARDENS, Fla. , Sept. 30, 2015  The ... this month issued another key ruling in favor of ... determination that Korean fingerprint scanner company Suprema and its ... Act of 1930, a trade provision that declares it ... import trade, by infringing two of Crossmatch,s patents, the ...
(Date:9/29/2015)... MILWAUKEE , Sept. 29, 2015  iDAvatars is excited ... partners to introduce its product to market. The official announcement was ... Cognitive Economy event in San Francisco ... Avatar platform powered by IBM Watson. "It is ... the first 100 companies to bring to market the cognitive ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
... 16 issue of the journal Cell Host & ... this immune response in mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis ... of drug treatments for immunosuppressive diseases in humans. ... of the interferon response in vivo," says the paper,s ...
... at the University of Delaware have discovered that when the ... it can send out an S.O.S. to the roots for ... that brings beneficial bacteria to the rescue. The finding ... of passing pathogens--and sheds new light on a sophisticated signaling ...
... TALLAHASSEE, Fla. -- The discovery of a protein involved ... a researcher at the Florida State University College of ... Institutes of Health. Branko Stefanovic, associate professor in ... Medicine, hopes his discovery could lead to treatment methods ...
Cached Biology News:
Other biology definitionOther Tags