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Substrate


The word substrate can mean the following:

  • In biochemistry, a substrate is a molecule which is acted upon by an enzyme.
  • In industrial printing, substrate is used to describe the base material that images will be printed onto. Depending on the printing process and end use of the product, these materials include (though are not limited to) films, foils, textiles, fabrics, plastics, and any variety of paper (lightweight, heavyweight, coated, uncoated, paperboard, cardboard, etc.).
  • In the semiconductor industry a substrate is a wafer of material, normally a single crystal, upon which semiconductor devices can be fabricated using epitaxial crystal growth and photolithography. Depending on the material and application the substrates can be between 5 and 30 cm in diameter. They are prepared by cutting large synthetic cylindrical crystal boules (or ingots) into slices and polishing the surface to a high degree of smoothness.
  • In biology, a substrate is an environment in which an organism lives, and which it feeds on. For example, in many households, a bruised apple is a substrate for the growth of a fungus.
  • In linguistics, a substrate or substratum refers to words borrowed from a language formerly spoken in a region, into the language currently spoken. For example, the French word chêne, meaning oak, is borrowed from the Gaulish language, a Celtic language formerly spoken in France.



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(Date:10/29/2014)... who lose their hair as a consequence of chemotherapy ... improve the scalp cooling technology that prevents hair loss. ... being pioneered by global scalp cooling manufacturing company, Paxman ... biology department of the University of Huddersfield. , The ... who has a background in the pharmacology of cancer ...
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Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Breakdown in gut barriers to bacteria may promote inflammation and craving in alcoholics 2New technology on the way to aid cancer suffers who lose their hair after chemotherapy 2
... for growing potatoes, at least for growing seed potatoes. ... project, together with Neiker-Tecnalia (the Basque Institute for Agricultural ... means of a novel system known as aeroponics. ... Spain, given that never before in this country the ...
... stressful lifestyle can take its toll, making us age faster and ... The same appears to be true of neurons in the ... in the journal Nature , dopamine-releasing neurons in a region ... requires lots of energy, creating stress that could lead to the ...
... movie theater swells; the roller coaster crests and begins ... you,re scared: your heart thumps, your stomach clenches, your ... fear doesn,t come from your heart, your stomach, your ... and it is therespecifically in an almond-shaped structure called ...
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