Navigation Links
Second messenger


In biology, second messengers are low-weight diffusible molecules that are used in signal transduction to relay a signal within a cell. They are synthesized or released by specific enzymatic reactions, usually as a result of an external signal that was received by a transmembrane receptor and pre-processed by other membrane-associated proteins. There are three basic types of second messenger molecules:

  • Hydrophobic molecules like diacylglycerol and phosphatidylinositols are membrane-associated and diffuse from the plasma membrane into the juxtamembrane space where they can reach and regulate membrane-associated effector proteins.
  • Hydrophilic molecules are water-soluble molecules, like cAMP, cGMP, and Ca2+, that are located within the cytosol.
  • gases, nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), that can diffuse both through cytosol and across cellular membranes.

These intracellular messengers have some properties in common:

  • They can be synthesized/released and broken down again in specific reactions by enzymes.
  • Some (like Ca2+) can be stored in special organelles and quickly released when needed.
  • Their production/release and destruction can be localized, enabling the cell to limit space and time of signal activity.

'"/>


(Date:7/11/2014)... 2014, Shenzhen, China Researchers from Salk Institute for ... first time evaluated the safety and reliability of ... developed a new method, TALEN-HDAdV, which could significantly ... cell (hiPSC). This study published online in ... foundation for stem cell-based gene therapy. , The ...
(Date:7/11/2014)... 11, 2014 Researchers have pioneered a revolutionary ... new technology, called Virtual Finger, allows scientists to ... neurons and synapses using the flat surface of ... 3D imaging studies orders of magnitude more efficient, ... level across many areas of experimental biology. The ...
(Date:7/11/2014)... that under the normal circumstances, astrocytes participate ... neuronal environment, and exhibit therapeutic and repairing ... Previous studies have found that nerve cells ... induction have reduced viability, which produces influences ... Yuan, Kailuan General Hospital, Hebei United University, ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):A new genome editing method brings the possibility of gene therapies closer to reality 2Virtual finger enables scientists to navigate and analyze complex 3D images 2
... research findings from the Centre for Permafrost (CENPERM) at ... of Copenhagen, document that permafrost during thawing may result ... atmosphere and that the future water content in the ... thawing. The findings may lead to more accurate climate ...
... Hanover, N.H.The ability to pay attention to relevant information ... the ability to focus and filter out "noise," we ... study of attention in the brain, the cellular mechanisms ... mystery... until now., In a study appearing in the ...
... a new way to join materials together using ultrasound. Ultrasound ... normally used to smash particles apart in water. In a ... Jake Barralet, from the faculties of Dentistry and Medicine, found ... bond together into strong agglomerates, about the size of grains ...
Cached Biology News:New knowledge about permafrost improving climate models 2Quantum of sonics: Bonded, not stirred 2
Other biology definitionOther Tags