Navigation Links
Karyotype


Karyogram of human female

A karyotype is the complete set of all chromosomes of a cell of any living organism. The chromosomes are arranged and displayed (often on a photo) in a standard format: in pairs, ordered by size. Karyotypes are examined in searches for chromosomal aberrations, and may be used to determine other macroscopically visible aspects of an individual's genotype, such as sex (XX vs. XY pair). The study of karyotypes is known as karyology.

Normal human karyotypes are denoted 46,XX (for most women) and 46,XY (for most men). However, some individuals have other karyotypes with added or missing sex chromosomes, including 47,XYY, 47,XXY, 47,XXX and 45,X. The other possibility, 45,Y, does not occur, as an embryo without an X chromosome is incapable of survival.

Contents

Classic karyotype

In the "classic" (depicted) karyotype, a dye, often Giemsa, is used to make bands on the chromosomes visible. This is also referred to as G-banding. Each chromosome has a characteristic banding patern which helps to identify them (notice that the two chromosomes of one pair have the same banding pattern).

Spectral karyotype (SKY technique)

In this newer technique, several different probes specific of one chromosome pair, carrying different amounts of a set of fluorescent dyes, are hybridized to the chromosomes in a technique known as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). This gives each chromosome pair unique spectral characteristics due to the relative amount of each of the fluorochromes. Chromosomes can be automatically identified in fluorescence microscopy through an interferometer and a computer analysis (spectral imaging )

See also

External links


'"/>


(Date:2/5/2015)... VIEW, Calif. , Feb. 3, 2015 /PRNewswire/ ... printer technology, demand from industries such as consumer ... global market for surface mount technology (SMT) screen ... equipment to automatic control will push the adoption ... dispensers will remain steady as glue dispensers are ...
(Date:1/22/2015)... - Today, FindBiometrics, the leading source of biometrics industry news, interviews ... design. "When we launched FindBiometrics 12 years ago ... , founder and CEO of FindBiometrics. "Now it,s maturing very ... key players on a very broad scale.  We are known ...
(Date:1/22/2015)... MADISON, Wis. , Jan. 15, 2015  BellBrook ... for drug discovery, announced the launch of a ... of the company,s Transcreener UDP Assay, a high ... enzymes. The new assay will allow for sensitive ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):End-user Demand Spurs Global SMT Screen Printers and Glue Dispensers Market 2End-user Demand Spurs Global SMT Screen Printers and Glue Dispensers Market 3Identity Industry Leading Publication Debuts New Look As Biometrics Hit Mainstream 2BellBrook Labs Launches a High Throughput Screening Assay for Glycosyltransferases with TR-FRET Readout 2
... at the atomic and molecular levels nanoscale ... this level where everything happens. Alexandra Navrotsky, ... Director of its Nanomaterials in the Environment, Agriculture, and ... nanoparticles throughout her career. She presented her findings today ...
... University researcher has identified the important role that a ... could lead to a greater understanding of stem cells. ... College of Medicine, has outlined his findings in the ... Developmental Cell . The article, "CDK5RAP2 Regulates Centriole Engagement ...
... macromolecules in cells is vital to survival. Disruption ... The research group of Professor Thomas Jentsch (Leibniz ... for Molecular Medicine, MDC, Berlin-Buch) has now succeeded ... the transport and degradation of macromolecules in endosomes ...
Cached Biology News:Nanoparticle scientist speaks on new discoveries at Goldschmidt Conference 2Florida State researcher uncovers protein's role in cell division 2Researchers identify a fundamental process in lysosomal function and protein degradation 2Researchers identify a fundamental process in lysosomal function and protein degradation 3
Other biology definitionOther Tags